• A
  • A
Switch colours to view the site as you prefer!

Where to start? Finding a pedagogical place for a pedagogical model

If we place the learners and learning at the forefront of our decision-making processes or teachers and teaching or knowledge and context then we are faced with different questions or choices.

Where to start? There are a dozen pedagogical models. More, depending on how you define and delimit them, and each offers something different. Some even come with their own straplines (or at least you can imagine them).

“Putting the game and the learner at the heart of everything we do” (Teaching Games for Understanding)

“Developing competent, literate and enthusiastic sports people” (Sport Education)

“Sink or swim together” (Cooperative Learning)

“Valuing the physically active life” (Health-based physical education)

But like every choice there are the “chosen” and the “unchosen”. But how do you choose?

Do you pick the model with the largest following? The most famous model (so to speak) – after all this would probably have the most free-to-access resources available, the most blogs and the most research papers written about it and the most advice available online? It would certainly make your job easier.

If we follow Mike Metzler’s (2011) list – and I certainly did that when I first started my models-based practice (MBP) approach – and then imagined that each model was a twitter feed or a Facebook page, how would we choose?

In doing this I imagine that Sport Education would have the most followers and likes. Maybe even a blue tick on both twitter and Facebook. It would, in this analogy, be followed by Teaching Games for Understanding (and others in the family of games-centred approaches – think of them like the Kardashian), Cooperative Learning, and maybe Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility. Beyond that would be a smaller group of models - Personalised System for Instruction, Peer Teaching, Inquiry Based Teaching – each with either a growing or a loyal fan base.

Finally, there would be new models such as Health-Based PE, Health Optimizing PE, a Model of Human Practising in PE, and Adventure in the Curriculum, which are new twitter feeds and Facebook pages under development. They have identified and seek to addressed perceived gaps in the current provision of models.

That said, we mustn’t forget Direct Instruction. In some ways, we might imagine that information about this might only be found on the Dark Web. After all, it has been historically mauled in the media and blamed for many of physical education ills. Alternatively, it might just be so famous that it doesn’t need a Facebook page. Like the Queen of England, Direct Instruction simply might not feel the need for social media (as a caveat to that statement there are many fake ‘HM The Queen’ accounts and a genuine Royal Family account – with a blue tick and everything).

So, which account do you choose to follow? Given, I suppose, that you already use one version or another of Direct Instruction?

In returning to the title of this blog “finding a pedagogical place for a pedagogical model” I’m going to suggest a pedagogical solution to your choice dilemma. To do that we need to pause to consider what pedagogy is – at least from my perspective. My definition is influenced by my academic mentors and involves teaching, learning and context.

Imagine pedagogy as a Venn diagram made up of three circles (i.e. learners and learning, teachers and teaching, and knowledge and context (Armour, 2011)) with pedagogy ‘living’ at the meeting point of all three circles (see https://www.slideshare.net/secret/24sfPrgzalwdGq). Seeing pedagogy this way has allowed me to consider the impact that my pedagogical choices might have on the way I teach, the way the learners in my care develop and the context in which I work. 

If we place the learners and learning at the forefront of decision making process then we are faced with a set of questions or choices. Equally, if we put either teachers and teaching or knowledge and context front and centre then we are faced with a different set of questions or choices respectively. But what might that look like?

Learners and learning: If the first set of dilemmas, questions and choices we tackle focus on learners and learning then we begin to see the pedagogical process from a more specific perspective. Our choice reflects the needs to the learner. We are required to focus on their needs and reflect on what learning best suits them. Popular rumour says that physical education and sport teaches leadership, collaboration, ethics, fair play etc. In short, simply by being involved in physical education and sport will make you better at these things.

The fact is, though, it doesn’t. If we want the learners in our care to learn these things then we have to provide them with opportunities to learn. We have to make pedagogical choices that facilities learning in this way. If we want learners to learn cognitively, socially and affectively then we need to make the right pedagogical choices. This might mean using Cooperative Learning or Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility to achieve our learning goal(s).

Teacher and teaching: I suspect that this is a domain of pedagogy that most frequently determines the approach to physical education that dominates most classrooms and gymnasium. I also suspect that often there is no choosing. We do what we have always done and what worked for us as learners (see my previous blog in the series). But no choice is still a choice.

This is certainly the way I started with MBP. I chose the model and then the models I wanted to use and retrofitted the benefits to learners and learning and the knowledge requirements of the context in which I worked to this choice. I was influenced by who I meet through my academic work, what I could find in books, journal articles and the web (although this wasn’t as easy in 2002 as it is today) and evidence from other teachers. This for me was the strongest form of initial evidence. I was looking for rave reviews from real teachers. In this case, I wanted to best Facebook page with the most followers and endorsements.

This allowed me to find real world examples of how the models (in my case this was initially Cooperative Learning, Sport Education and Tactical Games) and then use them in my classrooms. I could read something in the morning and it could be used in the next lesson. I could find the ‘best stuff’ for my context and my learners and feel I was having an impact in my knowledge and their learning.

Knowledge and context: Of the three components of pedagogy, knowledge and context is the most complex (at least for me) to understand. In education systems, the “knowledge to be taught, coached or learnt is always a context-bound decision that reflects, reinforces, reproduces (and sometimes challenges) what powerful individuals or groups believes is valuable at any given time” (Armour, 2011, p.13). This might be defined by state or national guidelines, local or national curriculum, and/or history. Indeed, one of the biggest obstacles to pedagogical change is history and expectation.

I was frequency faced with the argument from colleagues that “this [MBP] isn’t what we normally do” or the accusation that “this wasn’t real teaching”. I was also faced with the challenge of maintaining an extracurricular programme and inter-school fixture list in our traditional sports that didn’t always (or maybe ever) meet my aspirations for MBP.

This meant I picked lessons for MBP that I taught on my own and in activities/sports that we didn’t have an historical legacy of playing locally. I also picked lesson where students had pushed back against the traditional curriculum or my traditional teaching. Because these lessons hadn’t been working I felt I had a chance to see if something else might work better or differently.

If we place the learners and learning at the forefront of our decision-making processes or teachers and teaching or knowledge and context then we are faced with different questions or choices. But in making the choice to address those questions we begin to see where we could make a change and why.

The danger is, of course, there are simply too many choices to make. But my advice is try and make one. That might be across all three domains of pedagogy or two or one. I might say that I want the learners to work together better in gymnastics so I choose Cooperative Learning or Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility. Or I may choose Sport Education because everyone says it’s great. Or I want to improve swimming at the school so I going to use the Direct Instruction model better.

Either way, try and make a choice but don’t make too many. Don’t try and change everything. Like a beginner juggler don’t start with five balls in the air at once because they will fall fairly quickly and you’ll probably give up learning how to juggle. You already have a version of direct instruction in the air so think of a second to add. Get used to the trajectory and flight of that second ball before bringing in others.

MBP is a step change but it takes time (a lot of time) to gain confidence. Remember, not only are you learning to teach in a new way but the learners are learning to learn in a new way as well. So, when you make a choice and give yourself time and your learners time to adapt to the new model. Above all else, make your decision pedagogical.

Jay Cameron
About me
On Wednesday 04 October at 13:55 Jay Cameron said

Thanks Ashley for another thought provoking article!  As someone involved in teacher education I am an advocate for MBP and am always looking for ways to convince teacher candidates that great teaching exists at the point where you illustrated the overlap of the three circles [learner & learning, teacher & teaching, knowledge & context].  However, I would add that the overlap of these three critical considerations fluctuates.  Obviously it may be different for gymnastics, ultimate frisbee and step aerobics and it will be different from teacher to teacher.  Those differences can lead a teacher candidate to consider one model over another, but considering and thinking MBP hopefully leads toward implementation.

I also appreciated that you pointed out that taking a MBP approach takes time to gain cofidence since many teacher candidates are scared away after some initial bumpy attempts.  Trying new pedagogical approaches has to come with a warning that it may not be perfect the first time and patience and pratice are essential.  In some ways MBP seems like cooking - different techniques for preparation, different foods, different people eating that food.  How boring is it to have a boiled meal over and over?  Finding ways to instill a sense of MBP adventurousness in teacher candidates that optimizes the degree of overlap in Armour's Venn Diagram is an important step toward improved physical education.  

Kellie
About me
On Wednesday 04 October at 18:23 Kellie said

Thanks for taking the time to put together these first 3 blogs Ash.

Beginning with challenging the reader to consider/reconsider their approach to curriculum delivery, followed by the understanding that there is value in using what you know in implementing new approaches, and now a deeper look into how to get started with a models-based approach has provided me with food for thought as a teacher educator who supports MBP.

The introduction to MBP that you have provided within these first blogs has made me realize how some of my teaching practices need to change around introducing MBP. In particular, I need to address common MBP misinterpretations early in the learning process. For example, Direct Instruction as a pedagogical model and/versus DI as a teaching style AND Peer Teaching as a pedagogical model and peer teaching as practicing your teaching by teaching to your classmates are two that come to mind. I have already added this to my future learning plans. I have also added reminders to myself to reassure pre-service teachers that while MBP may seem overwhelming (as do most innovative approaches when we are first exposed to them), there are ways in which to slowly support yourself in developing skills in implementing a models-based approach, such as being part of supportive professional learning communities - this one being case in point.

Thanks again for picking up the torch and lighting the way for pre-service teachers, practitioners, teacher educators, and others to build a supportive online professional learning community around the implementation of MBP.

A shout out to Vicky Goodyear as well for MBP Vlogs: https://peandsportvlog.wordpress.com/  and Mike Metzler for a text (instructional models) and online resources: http://www.hhpcommunities.com/metzler/ 

 

comment avatar
About me
On Friday 06 October at 21:43 Abigail Penton said

I will start by saying thank you for making models-based practice not so scary for a young pre-service teacher. I’ve given myself some time since your last post to research some more about MBP. As I browsed through the models I realized that there were many that I wanted to know more about but felt a little overwhelmed as of which ones would be the most interesting to me. At the time, I decided to read more about Cooperative Learning within PE. I will be honest, I chose to research this model because I felt I had some background with this model and I found many resources when I researched it. If I decided yesterday to develop my models-based practice approach would I do the same and choose the one with the most resources? Probably. After reading your post today I understand that there should be more thought put into the decision-making process. I have been asked throughout many of my courses to define pedagogy and describe what it is and I suppose I thought of it simply as a method of practice and teaching. By thinking of pedagogy as having multiple aspects and seeing the importance of drawing on these aspects equally or to which aspect you feel it needs to focus on it will allow you to teach the appropriate context to your students in a teaching method that is effective for your students and for yourself as the teacher. I agree that there are many things to consider with the classes that you are teaching to help decide which model is the best approach. “I might say that I want the learners to work together better in gymnastics so I choose Cooperative Learning or Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility.” (Casey 2017). It is important to consider what you want to achieve and then choose a model to best fit this approach. I am realizing that with model-based practice it’s not about learning 10 different models and trying to master them all. It’s about trying to make a choice but not making too many. As a young teacher in training you need to be constantly reminding yourself not to get in over your head and expect to change everything. I learned throughout my internship that new things may not work out right away and it takes a while for the students to adapt and sometimes even the teacher to adapt. Overall, it takes time, consideration, and patience in choosing a model and it is important to make that choice pedagogical.

 

Metzler, M. (2017). Instructional models in physical education. Taylor & Francis.

Slavin, R. E., Madden, N. A., & Stevens, R. J. (1989). Cooperative Learning Models. Educational Leadership, 47, 4.

 

comment avatar
About me
On Friday 06 October at 22:26 Steve said

After having read this blog, the previous two blogs, and going back over my previous responses, I have realized just how spoiled for choice physical educators are this day in age. Looking over all the different models and styles of teaching, any one instructor can come up with a number of variations and permutations on exactly how to teach. Such variety I find quite intimidating as someone whose teaching career has not even begun in earnest.
This early in my career I feel I have license to experiment more with the pedagogical models in order to find out what works for me. In contrast, new adopters might not have the time or resources to try as many permutations of model + sport/activity in order to find a method they are comfortable with. I am grateful for this position that I am currently in.
Regarding what should be put at the forefront of our decision making as teachers I think it is important to utilize and discuss craft knowledge. As defined by Metzler, “Craft knowledge is derived from many teacher’s experiences using an instructional model. It is based upon verbal and/or written communication between teachers about ‘what works’ and ‘what doesn’t work’ when implementing a model.” (Metzler, 2017). Every district, every school and every class is different and what works for one teacher might not work for another. However, basing instruction on what historically worked within those areas could be greatly beneficial to a teacher. I think it is very sound advice for new teachers just entering the system, or teachers working in a new school in general, to look into the history of the school and the surrounding area as well as to ask current and former teachers about what they taught and how they taught. In doing so I believe this addresses all three domains of pedagogy described in the above blog. It addresses learners and learning by researching how similar learners in similar environments have learned as well as how those same learners learned in previous years. It addresses teachers and teaching by interacting with actual teachers and finding out how they taught. Lastly, it addresses knowledge and context by working within the context of the school that knowledge is being presented.
However, I also think it is important to go against the status quo and experiment within the models. As the above blogger mentioned, there were multiple times where she had been criticized for “not really teaching” when using MPB. For example, using an individual sport to teach cooperative learning might seem like an odd combination, but perhaps in a low-income community teaching students that individually improving themselves could have positive outcomes for their community might just be the thing to hook them. As someone who has found success in an individual sport I can say that I have had a stronger sense of community and companionship within that sport than any team I have played on. The models should be used “[...] to develop communities that can support teachers to use not just one model but multiple models in a given school year with the same participants rather than only using single models over short units of work.” (Casey, 2014).
As a newcomer I am very excited to be learning how to effectively use these models in a school environment. I just finished up my introductory internship and I feel I have gained some valuable knowledge from that experience. What to do, what not to do, etc. I would like to thank you for posting these blogs over these last few weeks. They have been very eye-opening and are just what I need to kickstart my career.
Cite

Casey, A. (2014). Models-based practice: Great white hope or white elephant?. Physical
Education and Sport Pedagogy, 19(1), 18-34.

Metzler, M. (2017). Instructional models in physical education. Taylor & Francis.

comment avatar
About me
On Friday 06 October at 22:52 Brandon Petten said

Thank you for such a great post Dr. Casey! I feel that this post has really tied everything together for me with regards to MBP. Before I was set out on my two-week internship (that I just finished), after reading your first post about MBP I was very interested in learning more about this. Now that I have read your past three posts and have researched in depth about it, it has really engaged me into MBP. A point that really stood out to me was when you said, “ Either way, try and make a choice but don’t make too many. Don’t try and change everything. Like a beginner juggler don’t start with five balls in the air at once because they will fall fairly quickly and you’ll probably give up learning how to juggle.”(Casey, 2017) After reading your post today, I understand the importance of decision-making. Being an educator you need to make vital decisions that’s best for the students. As I finished my two-week internship today, I realized what a big part in decision-making has. I have learned that not trying to overload with over thinking and over planning is also another huge factor that needs to be remembered. Like you touched on, pick one aspect that you will focus on and run with it. Decide what you want to achieve and then pick the model that will best fit your class.

            Once I was out into my internship, the term pedagogy was used quite often, and I’ve never really thought of how important it is in the school system. The practice of teaching and educating is our main goal as educators.  As a pre service teacher I am happy to be learning about these important models to implement into my teaching once I’m out into the job field. I feel that the use of these models will put me above and beyond when it comes to job interviews. Principals will understand and surely be impressed with the professionalism and organization of these models tying into the curriculum. Thanks again for your post!

 

References

Johnson, David W.|Johnson, Roger T.|Smith, Karl A. (1997, November 30). Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom. Retrieved October 06, 2017, from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED449714

comment avatar
About me
On Friday 06 October at 23:04 David Roberts said

Thank you for your post Dr. Casey!It is hard to try and introduce a new and effective pedagogical model and to not just try and introduce all of them at once to see what sticks. Your expectation on learners and learning could be important for choosing other pedagogical models because you are basing the model on how the students would learn in similar environments. However, as you have mentioned, I agree that just because there are components such as social interaction in sport and physical activity, that doesn't always mean that is what the student will get out of the activity. When we as physical educators are teaching we need to understand that maybe the way we approach a class could be more beneficial by changing our own pedagogical models instead of just hoping that a student will get more than one type of learning out of this activity. I as an educator, the more we can offer, the better the enjoyment there will be for that student. For example, you refer to how many students have just experienced direct instruction and compare it to the evil web, but for some students it may be that is what works best. I think as I continue through the internship and gain more experience teaching, I will see that you don't need to always use every pedagogical teaching model out there at once. Like you said, you don't need to start with five balls if you are beginner juggler (Casey 2017). As teachers, if we are more aware of the pedagogical models that are out there and how they can be effective, then we can decide what we believe can work best. We don't have to necessarily have one model that is bad compared to rest, but building on being able to work with one or two models and explore what works best for students. I strongly agree with what you had to say about model spaced practice and how you used is as a way to drive away from the original types of activity. I believe that physical education classes should be about choice. The more choice in certain teaching styles demonstrate a change in way a student can learn. A choice in the types of activities that help reinforce your teaching style can not only benefit the students but you as well. At the end of the day the more students can achieve from a class, the better they will be for not only learning but perhaps keeping their enjoyment for physical activity.  In Introduction models in physical education it says that Models are planning blueprints for the physical education teacher to use( Metzler,2017). I believe that this is the best explanation for the use of the pedagogical models, as they are foundation for how we as physical educators can provide the best ways of learning for our students and how we can examine and see that each class will require a different method. I understand that I am still a pre-service teacher, but I truly believe the more we do as physical education teachers, the better the learners our students will be.

Metzler, M. (2017). Instructional models in physical education. Taylor & Francis.

 

comment avatar
About me
On Friday 06 October at 23:34 Justin M said

            As a preservice teacher, it is easy to become overwhelmed with the new language that is constantly being thrown at us. From teaching methods, the latest and greatest models, appropriate terms and so on, it is challenging to digest it all and can even be discouraging at times. Believe it or not, Physical Education was never a field that I was overly passionate about. Don’t get me wrong, I enjoyed and participated in each and every class on my way up through grade school, but I was deep into my Physical Education degree before I really took the time to wrap my head around the issues and solutions of Physical Education in our classrooms.

            It is still quite an uphill battle for me, while my passion for Phys. Ed. has continued to grow, I believe it will take some time before I grasp what methods or strategies I am going to utilize within my classrooms. Thankfully, these past number of blogs from Dr. Casey have helped me along the way, and with two weeks of observing in school just recently completed, I have seen first-hand the value of finding a pedagogical place for a pedagogical model.

            Models Based Practice is one of the newer concepts introduced to me over the past little while and likely the most difficult to grasp. Dr. Casey acknowledges that “models based practice is a step change but it takes time (a lot of time) to gain confidence” (Casey, 2017). However, by networking with fellow Physical Educators and experts in the field, I gained a greater understanding as to how my approach with models based practice can be designed. Specifically, Casey has placed focus on trying to “make one” choice when considering pedagogical models, however make multiple choices as the school year continues (Casey,2014) as it remains important to start small and build my teaching skills over time.

            Overall, I thank Casey for helping my confidence as a pre-service teacher and introducing me to new pedagogical models, practices and approaches that I can continue to come back to in my future years.

Casey, A. (2014). Models-based practice: Great white hope or white elephant?. Physical 
Education and Sport Pedagogy, 19(1), 18-34.

comment avatar
About me
On Friday 06 October at 23:34 Justin M said

            As a preservice teacher, it is easy to become overwhelmed with the new language that is constantly being thrown at us. From teaching methods, the latest and greatest models, appropriate terms and so on, it is challenging to digest it all and can even be discouraging at times. Believe it or not, Physical Education was never a field that I was overly passionate about. Don’t get me wrong, I enjoyed and participated in each and every class on my way up through grade school, but I was deep into my Physical Education degree before I really took the time to wrap my head around the issues and solutions of Physical Education in our classrooms.

            It is still quite an uphill battle for me, while my passion for Phys. Ed. has continued to grow, I believe it will take some time before I grasp what methods or strategies I am going to utilize within my classrooms. Thankfully, these past number of blogs from Dr. Casey have helped me along the way, and with two weeks of observing in school just recently completed, I have seen first-hand the value of finding a pedagogical place for a pedagogical model.

            Models Based Practice is one of the newer concepts introduced to me over the past little while and likely the most difficult to grasp. Dr. Casey acknowledges that “models based practice is a step change but it takes time (a lot of time) to gain confidence” (Casey, 2017). However, by networking with fellow Physical Educators and experts in the field, I gained a greater understanding as to how my approach with models based practice can be designed. Specifically, Casey has placed focus on trying to “make one” choice when considering pedagogical models, however make multiple choices as the school year continues (Casey,2014) as it remains important to start small and build my teaching skills over time.

            Overall, I thank Casey for helping my confidence as a pre-service teacher and introducing me to new pedagogical models, practices and approaches that I can continue to come back to in my future years.

Casey, A. (2014). Models-based practice: Great white hope or white elephant?. Physical 
Education and Sport Pedagogy, 19(1), 18-34.

comment avatar
About me
On Friday 06 October at 23:54 Tonie Keats said

As I read your blog I start to realize there are so many ways to approach models-based practise and it is better to do your research than to just go off of what the definition is of the many types and then choose which one is better suited for yourself. This blog post really puts into perspective as to what MBP really is and ways in which to approach it. When I first researched about models-based practise I realized that there were so many different models I wanted to gain a better insight to but I began to realize I became a little overwhelmed and flustered as to which one I would like to follow or what one would better suit my style. As I looked at the many different models I first could see myself leaning towards the Cooperative Learning and Teaching Games for Understanding because those are the two I am most familiar with from other classes at MUN and teachers I have had which have used these models. However, after reading your post and understanding what you wrote I came to the conclusion that I should put more effort into deciding what model best fits me.
At the beginning of my degree I can remember multiple professors from many courses asking the class what they thought pedagogy meant. Honestly, when I was first asked I had no idea what the term meant but as I became more familiar with the word and did my homework things became clearer. I slowly started to realize that it is not just one thing itself, it is a variety of things and if you know which one you need to pay attention to then it will allow you as a teacher to teach the most relevant information to your students. Yes, there are a multiple array of things to take into consideration when you are teaching to figure out what model is best for you. But it is key to think about what you, as a teacher, want to accomplish in the years to come. You should focus on what ones best fit your style of teaching rather than overload on too many models. I am only new to this profession and I do not want to overwhelm myself right from the get go. So I am making the decision to figure out what ones work best for me, what ones work best for the students, and then hopefully find the one that will work best for both.
I wanted to say thank you for enhancing my knowledge on models-based practise and not turning me from the whole idea. As a pre-service teacher I have a lot to learn but your blogs have given me an insight into this world of teaching.

Reference:
Kirk, D. (2013). Educational Value and Models-Based Practice in Physical Education. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 45(9), 973-986. doi:10.1080/00131857.2013.785352

comment avatar
About me
On Saturday 07 October at 00:14 Pat Slaney said

      First off I would like to thank you for the informative thoughts you have shared thus far. This is the third blog post that I have read belonging to you and as a pre service teacher they have all forced me to think about my own teaching methods and have helped me re-evaluate many of my beliefs and opinions on pedagogies in physical education. I believe it is very important for all teachers, especially pre-serviced , to understand that we must not become complacent and to keep striving for improvement. Taking advantage of educational resources such as this is a luxury that we have as educators who are just kicking our career off. Like you mentioned during the blog post, 15 years ago this was not so easy as it is today. We are spoiled with resources such as this that can aid in the constant evolution of our teaching methods and beliefs in physical education.

       Reading this particular blog post has helped me realize that this profession can be a lot of trial and error, and that there is no real wrong or right choices. Every choice we make from a methodology standpoint is just another opportunity to test out what we feel may be the best suited model for a particular situation. This may work out to be a great decision, or we may have to make certain adjustments to suit the needs of the students in this particular situation.

      A point that was made in this post that I felt was important was to “try and make a choice but don’t make too many. Don’t try and change everything. Like a beginner juggler don’t start with five balls in the air at once because they will fall fairly quickly and you’ll probably give up learning how to juggle.” (Casey, 2017) I feel like this is a great piece of advice to not only pre-serviced teachers but teachers of all experience levels as well. This can be applicable in many areas of life in general, as most times when we as human being try to make changes in our lives, we often take on much more than we can handle. This leads to us dropping the ball on what we originally set out to do and the ultimate goal is never reached. However when small subtle changes are made, with constant readjustments we are able to stay on course and accomplish our goals. When we approach a culture change in physical education with this mindset, we are able to take our old models such as teaching for sport , or direct instruction and find the useful tools in these models that can be utilized in our models based practice.

      I also agree that a models based practice takes a lot of time, especially to understand and gain competence in. At first introduction I felt that it was information overload, however I have now gained a deeper understanding of the MBP and how it can be implemented in our methodology as physical educators. I just finished up my first two week internship, and after following your blog posts as of late I have been able to see first hand how these methods could be applicable in different situations. Overall, I feel that after reading this blog I now realize that it is okay to not always have the answer right away. It is important to identify what you are trying to ultimately achieve, choose a method you feel is best to get you there, then reflect and adjust as you gain experience with each method. Metzler states that “knowledge is derived from many teacher’s experiences using an instructional model. It is based upon verbal and/or written communication between teachers about ‘what works’ and ‘what doesn’t work’ when implementing a model.” (Metzler, 2017) Finding a model that best suits your teaching style takes time, patience, and an open mind. These blog posts have certainly been beneficial in helping me think critically about my teaching style and methodology.

Casey, A. (2017). Where to start? Finding a pedagogical place for a pedagogical model. Retrieved October 06, 2017, from http://www.peprn.com/2017/9/where-to-start-finding-a-pedagogical-place-for-a-pedagogical-model.aspx

Metzler, M. (2017). Instructional models in physical education. Taylor & Francis.

comment avatar
About me
On Saturday 07 October at 00:23 Matt McDonald said

First off, I just wanted to state that I have thoroughly enjoyed your blog posts over the past couple of weeks. I feel that they have really helped to redefine me as a teacher. I am grateful for this experience. Prior to beginning my introductory two week internship, I knew very little about models based practice.  I was however, very intrigued by it and excited to learn more on the concept. I think one point that all teachers need to keep in mind is that, excuse the cliché, but that Rome wasn’t built in a day; change doesn’t happen overnight. One of the biggest problems with any change in the educational system is that teachers attempt to make it a reality far too quickly. Students, as are some teachers, are in a routine. They have an ideal of what physical education is and if you try and change it all in an instant than there will be controversy. Ultimately, it is because it is what they have known for as long as they’ve been in school. Old habits are hard to break, even more so when it involves quite possibly their favorite subject in school.

                Starting out as a teacher, it is very common for young individuals to try and take on too much at once. Models-based-practice is an example of when this would occur. Being fresh out of university and wanting to make an impact, teachers will attempt to revamp the entire system overnight. Instead, pick one concept from the MBP and execute that one first, then move on to another. Before you know it, you will have implemented the entire system into your physical education program.

                From my two week introductory internship, I honestly have barely heard anything about models-based-practice. My school was fairly old-fashioned, conservative, in their approach. I believe that this was primarily due to the fact that both physical education teachers were at the end of their careers. Honestly, they have probably never heard of models-based-practice. At this time I did not feel that it was my place to step in and try to change the system, as it was worked well despite its differences. I will take this as a learning experience so that I can draw my own comparisons when I get out and have my own classroom. Once again, I have thoroughly enjoyed your blog series and I will be sure to continue my studying of MBP and its benefits.

 

Resources

Metzler, M. (2017), Instructional models in physical education. Taylor & Francis

comment avatar
About me
On Saturday 07 October at 00:45 Tim said

I would just like to start my post by saying thank you for opening my eyes to the idea of model based practice and all the opportunities it poses for up and coming physical education teachers like myself. Before reading your blogs, my knowledge of model based practice was very limited. After doing some reading and research I have become more intrigued in the ideas of model based practice and how it can improve student learning. Since I started my journey to become a physical education teacher, I have always been concerned with health and the constantly increasing rate of obesity. Growing up I felt that physical education class was solely sports based, which was never an issue for me but I knew it was limiting to some students who were not sports inclined. This was a thought that always made me wonder why the curriculum seem to favour students who were athletes. I had always thought that physical education should be focused on life long physical activity, which means learning activities that all students can do and enjoy, so they could continue with them long after they graduated high school. Personally I feel the pedagogical model of health based physical education is very important and commonly overlooked. After doing some research in the area of teaching students with the idea of “fit for life” in mind, I found many articles that seem to agree with my view on how physical education should be taught. Dale Kephart, a long time physical education teacher states that her lessons are designed to specifically target activity’s that promote health and fitness. She continues to say that her goal is to involve students in as much activity as possible which involve 6 components. These 6 components are Cardio respiratory, body composition, muscular endurance, muscular strength, Flexibility, and stress management (Dunne, 2002). I found this example of 6 ways to teacher the model of health based physical education really gave me a great idea of ways to structure a program to help students achieve a “fit for life” mentality.

When I become a physical education teacher I want to be able to give students to tools and knowledge to be active for life and develop my activities so they are not solely sports based, which will suit all students regardless of skill level or experience. I feel that if I can use your model based practice approach and teach with the idea of equipping students with the tools and mindset to be fit for life, more students will benefit from my class.

comment avatar
About me
On Saturday 07 October at 00:48 Tim said

I would just like to start my post by saying thank you for opening my eyes to the idea of model based practice and all the opportunities it poses for up and coming physical education teachers like myself. Before reading your blogs, my knowledge of model based practice was very limited. After doing some reading and research I have become more intrigued in the ideas of model based practice and how it can improve student learning. Since I started my journey to become a physical education teacher, I have always been concerned with health and the constantly increasing rate of obesity. Growing up I felt that physical education class was solely sports based, which was never an issue for me but I knew it was limiting to some students who were not sports inclined. This was a thought that always made me wonder why the curriculum seem to favour students who were athletes. I had always thought that physical education should be focused on life long physical activity, which means learning activities that all students can do and enjoy, so they could continue with them long after they graduated high school. Personally I feel the pedagogical model of health based physical education is very important and commonly overlooked. After doing some research in the area of teaching students with the idea of “fit for life” in mind, I found many articles that seem to agree with my view on how physical education should be taught. Dale Kephart, a long time physical education teacher states that her lessons are designed to specifically target activity’s that promote health and fitness. She continues to say that her goal is to involve students in as much activity as possible which involve 6 components. These 6 components are Cardio respiratory, body composition, muscular endurance, muscular strength, Flexibility, and stress management (Dunne, 2002). I found this example of 6 ways to teacher the model of health based physical education really gave me a great idea of ways to structure a program to help students achieve a “fit for life” mentality.

When I become a physical education teacher I want to be able to give students to tools and knowledge to be active for life and develop my activities so they are not solely sports based, which will suit all students regardless of skill level or experience. I feel that if I can use your model based practice approach and teach with the idea of equipping students with the tools and mindset to be fit for life, more students will benefit from my class.

Dunne, D. (2002, 01 05). "Be Fit for Life," Says P.E. Teacher of the Year . Retrieved from Education World: http://www.educationworld.com/a_curr/curr221.shtml

 

comment avatar
About me
On Saturday 07 October at 00:51 Kasondra Perrier said

Dr. Casey,
Thank you for another great blog post that can benefit myself and the other pre-service teachers. It is definitely a lot to learn, and frustrating to decide which model/models to practice myself. My general understanding of this blog, is that many models should be used to create a balance. Looking at the pedagogy as a Venn diagram, circle uses some sort of model. Learners and learning does not simply come from being in a physical education class, but from the way the teacher executes the class. In order to learn skills such as teamwork, using cooperative learning instead of direct instruction would be preferred. The next is teacher and teaching, it is in the way which we teach. Up to this point I am not sure what model, if any I use, but I do have the choice to decide early on in my career. The final is knowledge and context, “of the three components of pedagogy, knowledge and context is the most complex”. It is our decision as a teacher to decide the knowledge we share and learn based on context of the situation. In the middle of the Venn diagram is MPB, this is up to the teacher and is at the core of teaching, learning and knowledge.
So now, how and what to choose? I like your analogy of being a juggler, don’t start with five balls in the air because it may lead to giving up. I am mostly interested in teaching games for understanding along with the new model Health-Based PE. Because I previously have not heard a whole lot about Health-based PE, I decided to do some research finding that the goal is to create healthy lifestyles amongst students outside the class. Fernandez-Rio (2016) suggests that P.E should not be focuses on physical activity or teaching of skills, but should come together so that physical education is platform for students to meet skills, that will allow them to live a heathy lifestyle long-term. It is also suggested that teachers focus on the affective domain, with social and motor, and cognitive domains supporting. I think that this model is ideal, because as physical educators, our long-term goals should be to encourage students to healthy life long.

References: 

Fernandez-Rio, Javier. (2016). Health-based Physical Education: A Model for Educators. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 87(8), 5-7.

comment avatar
About me
On Saturday 07 October at 00:51 Kasondra Perrier said

Dr. Casey,
Thank you for another great blog post that can benefit myself and the other pre-service teachers. It is definitely a lot to learn, and frustrating to decide which model/models to practice myself. My general understanding of this blog, is that many models should be used to create a balance. Looking at the pedagogy as a Venn diagram, circle uses some sort of model. Learners and learning does not simply come from being in a physical education class, but from the way the teacher executes the class. In order to learn skills such as teamwork, using cooperative learning instead of direct instruction would be preferred. The next is teacher and teaching, it is in the way which we teach. Up to this point I am not sure what model, if any I use, but I do have the choice to decide early on in my career. The final is knowledge and context, “of the three components of pedagogy, knowledge and context is the most complex”. It is our decision as a teacher to decide the knowledge we share and learn based on context of the situation. In the middle of the Venn diagram is MPB, this is up to the teacher and is at the core of teaching, learning and knowledge.
So now, how and what to choose? I like your analogy of being a juggler, don’t start with five balls in the air because it may lead to giving up. I am mostly interested in teaching games for understanding along with the new model Health-Based PE. Because I previously have not heard a whole lot about Health-based PE, I decided to do some research finding that the goal is to create healthy lifestyles amongst students outside the class. Fernandez-Rio (2016) suggests that P.E should not be focuses on physical activity or teaching of skills, but should come together so that physical education is platform for students to meet skills, that will allow them to live a heathy lifestyle long-term. It is also suggested that teachers focus on the affective domain, with social and motor, and cognitive domains supporting. I think that this model is ideal, because as physical educators, our long-term goals should be to encourage students to healthy life long.

References: 

Fernandez-Rio, Javier. (2016). Health-based Physical Education: A Model for Educators. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 87(8), 5-7.

Brady Turner
About me
On Saturday 07 October at 01:17 Brady Turner said

Ash,

You have certainly provided some thought provoking ideas here in this post. I am very glad to see you address the repercussions of using models-based practice, and stress the importance of patience to accomplish instructional effectiveness. Despite this, Physical Education (PE) is a different animal when it comes to patience.

My main concern around experimenting with models-based practice is within the learners and learning component you outlined. As a future physical educator I fear that patience is not something we can afford. In my province of Newfoundland and Labrador, only 6% of instructional time is allotted in the frameworks for PE (Kilborn et al., 2016). Given this, most students only get to participate in PE once a week (grades 7-9). I would argue that patience and time is not on our side to experiment as freely as we would want to if we want to ensure a success-oriented curriculum.

The main purpose of PE is to ensure that all our classes are student-centered and achievement-based (Kelly and Melograno, 2004). This is accomplished by having a central theme, specific goals, implementation strategies, student outcomes, but most importantly knowing your students. I would caution that before examining the teacher and teaching component, and the knowledge and context component to help choose an appropriate model, you first get to know your students. Some models are going to be successful with some groups, unsuccessful with others. To relish the time you have in PE, I believe it is important to make the investment in your students, and choose a model that will best reflect the needs to help all students learn the proper frameworks outlined by your ministry.

What I am getting at here is I see the component of learners and learning as 50%, teacher and teaching as 25%, and knowledge and content as 25% in the breakdown, as I believe that the students should influence most of your decisions. In Physical Education Futures, I agree with David Kirk when he theorizes that PE needs to go through radical reform (Kirk, 2009) and step away from traditional sports, male dominated, and competition; however, I strongly disagree with him when he states that if change does not happen PE will go extinct. This is just unnecessary fear mongering. There are many great things happening in PE, and have been happening for quite some time. If PE is student-centered, no matter what model is being used you will have a successful program. As you make reference to, us as teachers are learning to teach (being a constant learner), and the students are also learning to learn. So make your pedagogy decisions based on merit, research, experience, but most importantly your students.

I have enjoyed this blog experience thus far, and look forward to reading more of your posts.

References:
Kelly, L., & Melograno, V. (2004). Developing the physical education curriculum: An achievement-based approach. Human kinetics.

Kilborn, M., Lorusso, J., & Francis, N. (2016). An analysis of Canadian physical education curricula. European Physical Education Review, 22(1), 23-46.

Kirk, D. (2009). Physical education futures. Routledge.

comment avatar
About me
On Saturday 07 October at 01:58 Kylie J Beals said

I would like to take this opportunity to thank you Dr. Casey for shining some light on the models based practice way of teaching for me through the last three blog posts. I’ll be the first to admit that as a pre-service teacher the concept of models based practice is still daunting simply. This is because there are so many different options that have been well researched in recent years for me to chose from and choosing is proving to be a difficult choice. For this reason, I particularly liked this posting. Where as the other two blog posts gave me a good insight into some models while inspiring me to research others this blog post did an excellent job at helping me see what I need to consider when choosing specific models to work with. Upon reading this article it became more clear that I need to try and focus on a model that will work best for what I am looking to accomplish with my teaching. Such as Casey discussed above in the posting, sometimes different models may suit different teaching goals such as the example of using direct instruction when trying to improve a specific skill (Casey, 2017). Having this mindset as well as using the idea of putting either the learners the teaching or the knowledge and context parts of pedagogy as a forefront to making my decision of which model to use will make it easier for me to make a decision throughout my career. I look forward to hopefully experiencing more of these models in my internship this winter and to continually expanding my knowledge about different models.

References

Hastie, P. A., & Casey, A. (2014). Fidelity in models-based practice research in sport pedagogy: A guide for future investigations. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 33(3), 422-431.


Kirk, D. (2013). Educational value and models-based practice in physical education. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 45(9), 973-986

comment avatar
About me
On Saturday 07 October at 02:06 Emily Babstock said
Dr. Casey, Thank you for sharing your thoughts with us! I have really enjoyed reading your posts over the past few weeks. Your work really makes me reflect on my experience as a pre-service teacher and also plan for my future as a teacher. After reading this article, I can not say that I have chosen one model to follow in my coming years as a physical education teacher, but rather I have accepted that I will have to test out each method in order to build my own pedagogy. I am glad I had the opportunity to read your posts because otherwise I would be left with the only thing I know of physical education pedagogy – direct instruction. I feel like when I have to choose a pedagogical model to follow starting out in my career, I will now be able to sit down and think about which aspects I want to implicate. As a student, I always felt as though physical education revolved around sport and sport skill development. Though I never had an issue with this, I realize now that not all students are engaged when sport skills are taught via direct instruction. I enjoyed Venn diagram image of pedagogy that you illustrated in this post, and I feel as though it has tied together all my experiences in studying physical education. I have been the learner learning, I have learned the knowledge and context, and now I am (almost) a teacher teaching. Today I finished my two-week internship and I have finally got to experience the latter component of the pedagogy Venn diagram. I can say that currently I aspire to be the physical educator that facilitates a love and appreciation for physical activity through health and outdoor adventure. I will remain a lover of sports and sport skills, but I can respect that not all learners can learn in that environment. I hope to be able to favour my learners needs in order to create an environment that inspires them to lead an active and healthy lifestyle. Casey, A. (2017). Where to start? Finding a pedagogical place for a pedagogical model. Retrieved October 06, 2017, from http://www.peprn.com/2017/9/where-to-start-finding-a-pedagogical-place-for-a-pedagogical-model.aspx
comment avatar
About me
On Saturday 07 October at 03:22 Brad Murray said

Thank you so much Dr. Casey for simplifying several points regarding MBP in your past three blogs. You’ve given me a lot to think about as I enter the field of physical Education, not to mention provided a great deal of information which will help me apply MBP into my lesson plans.

Up until reading this blog I was very confused as to where to start when trying to apply MBP into my lesson plans during my teaching practicum. I had tried and failed multiple times and felt very frustrated when things didn’t quite work out as I’d planned. I guess I was trying to be the juggler with too many balls in the air at once, flip flopping from one model to another if one didn’t work for me (Kasey, 2017). I couldn’t figure out what I was doing wrong, but after reading this post I realized I was trying to change too many things at once and expected results right away. The problem was I didn’t make a choice on one or two models which would work best for what I was trying to achieve in each class. This post really cleared that up for me.

I look forward to researching and practicing MBP in the next few months so that I can apply it again when in the classroom. From what I’ve noticed that there are few teachers that are unfamiliar with MBP, and maybe a little hesitant to try it out. This has also been mentioned in other research regarding MBP, (Casey, 2014). At my placement for example the teachers seem to be a little old school and were unable to help when I struggled with applying MBP to my lessons. I guess this gives me an upper and lower hand because I do not have a great deal of support but I’m also unaffected by old school practices as I’m just starting out.

 

References:

Metzler, M. (2017), Instructional models in physical education. Taylor & Francis

Casey, A. (2014). Models-based practice: Great White Hope or White Elephant?. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 19(1), 18-34.

comment avatar
About me
On Saturday 07 October at 03:41 Samantha Morey said

Thank you for another great read, Dr. Casey. As a new teacher, it gets overwhelming with all of the new lingo thrown at us, however, reading these blogs are truly helping me understand what models-based practice is. Since reading the first blog post, I have researched the importance of developing our pedagogies as new teachers.
One of the articles I found called “Self-Development of Pedagogical Competence of Future Teacher” contained the following statement that fits so well with the purpose of these blog comments. It states that “each student–future teacher–has to understand need of self-development.” Mirzagitova then goes on to say that in order for us to do this, we must understand the importance for considering all opportunities as a resource of “professional development” (Mirzagitova, 2015). Using the recourses that we have, which is limitless now with the Internet, we have the ability to research and adopt any of the pedagogical models that we see fit, including models-based practice.
Choosing the correct pedagogical model doesn’t mean selecting your favorite and always using that one. It means choosing the model that works for that specific class, for that specific activity to give the greatest success in achieving particular outcomes. This is where models-based practice comes in.
As new teachers, if we begin our careers using models-based practice we won’t run into the same issues as what seasoned teachers had. Attempting to change your pedagogy after years of teaching the same way will be challenging. By entering the profession with the knowledge of models-based practice and having access to the right resources, we can start off on the right track. As I mentioned in my first blog comment, if we begin using models-based practice, we can be the generation of physical educators who change society’s perception of what we do.

 

Mirzagitova, A. L., & Akhmetov, L. G. (2015). Self-Development of Pedagogical Competence of Future Teacher. International Education Studies.

comment avatar
About me
On Saturday 07 October at 15:20 Zack Hurley said

I’d just like to start off by saying that I have really enjoyed your blog posts over that last couple of weeks and that I am greatly appreciative of the knowledge that you have so generously made available to me and other teachers. Before reading these posts I did not have much knowledge on MBP, but through the last couple of weeks I have researched more into this area of teaching and have added valuable information to my teaching repertoire.

During my two week internship (in which I just finished) I did not have much time to try and implement different models into my teaching style. I did however use my two weeks as more of an observational opportunity whereby I could observe the physical educators way of teaching and try and put my own spin on it. I noticed that the physical education teachers who I was observing have been doing this for a long time (20+ years) and their style of teaching was a very sports education approach. The term MBP was very new to them and it didn’t surprise me that they were sort of stuck in their ways. I mean if I was in their position and had been teaching a certain way for 20 years then it would be rather difficult to change things up. Is it cliché for me to say “you can’t teach an old dog new tricks.”

This is where being new and up incoming teacher, like myself, has its advantages. I feel that coming into the teaching world with a fresh slate will be a benefit when learning and implementing a variety of different models of teaching. In saying this I am keeping in mind what you said, “Either way, try and make a choice but don’t make too many. Don’t try and change everything. Like a beginner juggler don’t start with five balls in the air at once because they will fall fairly quickly and you’ll probably give up learning how to juggle.” (Casey, 2017) For me in particular, I find it very easy and productive to teach using a sport education method. So as I begin my journey as a Physical Education teacher, this method will be my “go to”. From there I plan on learning and implementing new models of teaching one at a time. I will not take on to many at once and I feel it will do more harm than good. Once I have an array of models at my disposal, I will pick and choose when to apply a particular model based on what I want out of the students. “I might say that I want learners to work together better in gymnastics so I choose Cooperative Learning or Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility.” (Casey, 2017)

Having said all of this, I must point out that it takes time, experience and patience when choosing a model. I will begin my teaching career with the ability to teach one model (sport education) and from there I will branch out on other models such as Cooperative Learning or Teaching Games for Understanding.

Casey, A. (2014). Models-based practice: Great white hope or white elephant?. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 19(1), 18-34.

Metzler, M. (2017). Instructional models in physical education. Taylor & Francis.

comment avatar
About me
On Saturday 07 October at 23:26 Andrew said
Ashley, I first of all want to say thank you for posting these three blog posts. It has really given me an insight into model based practise, which was something I was not very informed on before reading your blogs. It has sparked an interest for me and I did further reading and it has me engaged in the topic. From reading this post, you have given me very good advice for a pre-service teacher such as myself. I really like the quote you stated saying “Either way, try and make a choice but don’t make too many. Don’t try and change everything. Like a beginner juggler don’t start with five balls in the air at once because they will fall fairly quickly and you’ll probably give up learning how to juggle.” (Casey, 2017) I myself know I would try and take on too many pedagogical models and would most likely try to juggle them rather than finding one that suits my teaching style. I just finished a two-week internship and now understand how important it is for a teacher to make the choice of trying to balance out a workload. Work overload is something that can happen very easily and can eventually lead to burnout in some cases, and teachers working at the profession for their first five years are at a higher risk for it. (Baysal, 1995). Planning ahead can help with this and before any lesson, there would be a few questions I would have to ask myself before I know which model I would use. These are; What do I want my students to learn? Do any of the models have the same priorities? How well does the context meet the requirements? It is important to decide what you want the students to achieve and then pick a model that best suits them. As a preservice teacher, I am very privileged to be able to read your blog posts. I now have a better understanding of the different pedagogies used in physical education and when to use them. This is very helpful information which I will be able to use for many years to come. Thanks again! Baysal, A. (1995). Factors affecting burnout in high school and equivalent school teachers. PhD Thesis.Izmir DokuzEylul University.

In order to add your comments, you must login or register as a member

You can login or register here