The previous blog explored the idea that many children cannot afford for PE to be boring and irrelevant. Some children, those are supported by parents or who find interests outside of PE, will get along despite their PE experiences. However, our subject area is seriously underserving others whose life doesn’t allow them to see or access opportunities for physical activity outside of school. I concluded by asking if this was time to acknowledge that there is no ‘average’ child who can be catered for anymore through a diet of team games and that we need to be pioneers in our programmes if we are to shake up what occurs in the name of PE.
In this week’s blog I consider peer-assisted learning. In other words, how teachers effectively create pedagogical contexts in which students learn in groups and from their peers. However, the blog begins with a discussion that suggests, in order to create new and engaging learning experiences that depend on peer-learning, the teacher needs to be aware that such change to the learning context takes time for the students to learn to learn in a new way.
Ward, P. & Lee M-A (2005/2012) Peer-assisted learning in physical education: A review of theory and research In D. Kirk (ed.) Major Themes in Education: Physical Education: Volume II. (pp. 434-458) London: Routledge.
My ‘take home’ message – the implications of the research on practice
Recently, I happened to ‘pop’ on to twitter to browse some content before a meeting. I had spent the better part of the day engaging with students around teaching and pedagogical change and was about to begin working on a research paper for resubmission to a journal, before reading this week’s blog paper. The research paper explores a Deweyan approach to Cooperative Learning and having re-read that paper I was even more ready to advocate for a pedagogical model approach. By chance, and having been very engaged during the day in my own research, this week’s blog paper was on Peer Assisted Learning generally and had a focus on Cooperative Learning. However, it wasn’t until the culmination of all of these things that I visited twitter.
By chance (or fate depending on your disposition) I picked up on a discussion between teachers about the frustrating process of pedagogical change. One was lamenting the reduction in activity when they tried something differently and they were expressing the well-founded belief that they could have achieved much higher levels of MVPA if they had taught in a more traditional manner. Other were supporting this claim, while others still were advocating for other learning outcomes from PE.
Now I remember those days of frustration – wrestling with old vs new, dominant vs residual pedagogical- but I also remember the changes that I engendered in my classrooms as a consequence of long term and sustained pedagogical change and know that I made a big difference in the learning of hundreds of children. Yet, and unlike many colleagues who have made the same conscious effort, I am fortunate to have an evidence base to support this claim; an evidence base many don’t keep.
To me the key is that, teachers should not only teach in the best ways they can, but they must also acknowledge that it takes time to change– more time than perhaps they envisioned for things to get back to where they were and then beyond. Why? Because in changing your expectations and ways of teaching, you are upsetting the ‘way’ of school. By doing something differently, the kids need to learn the new structure (the rules of engagement so to speak) and that takes time. Consequently, when you think about pedagogical change consider that kids need to learn to learn in a new way often at the same time that you are learning to teach in a new way.
Lee and Ward, in undertaking to review the research around peer assisted learning (PAL), sought to offer guidance to teachers and researchers in their decisions about using these approaches in practice. They did this in the knowledge that one of the fundamental aims of PAL was to break the traditional convention of having a teacher to student ration of 1:30. Such an aim is a good thing but they also wanted to know what happens to the quality of instruction and learning when the teacher is no longer the first point of contact in the pedagogic process. Research in general education, they suggested, demonstrated the effectiveness and utility of PAL in a variety of educational settings. However, its growth in physical education was such that the authors wanted to know what affect it might be having in this subject area.
In it important to note some of the findings they reported in their overview of the research to date. Firstly, and most significantly, but perhaps not most surprisingly, merely placing students in groups or pairs is insufficient to ensure learning will occur. There needs to be a deliberate pedagogical act or curriculum approach that supports and nurtures this learning process. Secondly, PAL should be considered as an umbrella term for a number of approaches including peer teaching and Cooperative Learning. Thirdly, for PAL to be most effective teachers need to create environments in which students build knowledge from experiences focused on problems and collaborative activities, both of which produce cognitive conflict in the student. In other words, PAL approaches are about challenging and disputing understanding rather than just accepting fact.
Ward and Lee examined 28 studies with a combined sample size of an excess of 2300 in order to better understand the implications of using PAL in physical education. A core finding from these 28 studies was that more feedback is given to friends than non-acquaintances. This finding alone has implications in terms of how groups are selected in general classes or in pedagogical models such a sport education.
In looking at Cooperative Learning specifically, Ward and Lee tempered their findings by suggesting that students need to learn the social skills necessary to complete their assigned roles or tasks before the approach can be fully successful and that this takes more time than other PAL approaches. That said Cooperative Learning structures such as PACER and jigsaw (that hold specific times for face-to-face interaction and individual accountability) increase the number of correct skill performances. In particular low skilled students performed similarly to their higher skilled counterparts, when learning through Cooperative Learning and receiving feedback from their peers.
In a number of studies led by Ben Dyson it was reported that teachers felt that Cooperative Learning helped their students to improve motor skills, game strategies, active participation, and respect for peers. Similarly, students in the same studies said that Cooperative Learning encouraged them to participate, learning was fun, and the lessons allowed them to develop their motor skills and interpersonal skills.
In concluding their review Ward and Lee suggested that teachers using PAL needed to (a) teach the students how to engage in Cooperative Learning, (b) use deliberate Cooperative Learning structures, (c) consider how to best group students, (d) ensure that students were accountable for their contributions, and (e) ensure that everybody was included.
With these conclusions in mind we might consider how we structure group work in our classes. Whilst ad-hoc discussion tasks can support social learning, Ward and Lee suggest that these key features maximise learning and attainment. Yet I was left thinking that there may be many other ways in which group learning is enhanced beyond these 5 conclusions. Therefore, I ask you to share, what pedagogical strategies have you employed that maximise learning and achievement in group work? Perhaps, such sharing will help others who are developing their use and students learning through of PAL. 8
What’s next? As part of this series of blogs I propose the following as a way of considering the implications of this research on your teaching- Think, Act, Change (or TAC for short).
Think about findings of the paper – do they resonate with you? Use Twitter (@DrAshCasey) to ask a question, seek clarification, may be challenge the findings.
Act on what you’ve read. What do you believe? Is it your responsibility to make changes or is this just something else that I’ve put on your plate? Is there action to take? If so, what might it be?
Change what you do in response to your thoughts and actions? Is this a personal undertaking? If you want to do something or are looking for help then please let the community know about it.
I wouldn’t expect every paper to get beyond the T or even the A of TAC but if one paper resonates enough to get to C then hopefully all this is worthwhile. Good luck.